Protein misfolding is prominent in early cellular pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), implicating pathophysiological significance of endoplasmic reticulum stress/unfolded protein response (ER stress/UPR) and highlighting it as a target for drug development. Experimental data from animal AD models and observations on human specimens are, however, inconsistent. ER stress and associated UPR are readily observed in in vitro AD cellular models and in some AD model animals. In the human brain, components and markers of ER stress as well as UPR transducers are observed at Braak stages III-VI associated with severe neuropathology and neuronal death. The picture, however, is further complicated by the brain region- and cell type-specificity of the ADrelated pathology. Terms 'disturbed' or 'non-canonical' ER stress/UPR were used to describe the discrepancies between experimental data and the classic ER stress/UPR cascade. Here we discuss possible 'disturbing' or 'interfering' factors which may modify ER stress/UPR in the early AD pathogenesis. We focus on the dysregulation of the ER Ca2+ homeostasis, store-operated Ca2+ entry, and the interaction between the ER and mitochondria. We suggest that a detailed study of the CNS cell type-specific alterations of Ca2+ homeostasis in early AD may deepen our understanding of AD-related dysproteostasis.

The endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response in Alzheimer's disease: A calcium dyshomeostasis perspective

Lim, Dmitry
Primo
;
Tapella, Laura
Secondo
;
Dematteis, Giulia;Genazzani, Armando;Corazzari, Marco;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Protein misfolding is prominent in early cellular pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), implicating pathophysiological significance of endoplasmic reticulum stress/unfolded protein response (ER stress/UPR) and highlighting it as a target for drug development. Experimental data from animal AD models and observations on human specimens are, however, inconsistent. ER stress and associated UPR are readily observed in in vitro AD cellular models and in some AD model animals. In the human brain, components and markers of ER stress as well as UPR transducers are observed at Braak stages III-VI associated with severe neuropathology and neuronal death. The picture, however, is further complicated by the brain region- and cell type-specificity of the ADrelated pathology. Terms 'disturbed' or 'non-canonical' ER stress/UPR were used to describe the discrepancies between experimental data and the classic ER stress/UPR cascade. Here we discuss possible 'disturbing' or 'interfering' factors which may modify ER stress/UPR in the early AD pathogenesis. We focus on the dysregulation of the ER Ca2+ homeostasis, store-operated Ca2+ entry, and the interaction between the ER and mitochondria. We suggest that a detailed study of the CNS cell type-specific alterations of Ca2+ homeostasis in early AD may deepen our understanding of AD-related dysproteostasis.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11579/162422
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