Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare autoimmune disease that is potentially threatening for patient life. Auto-antibodies targeting structures of the neuromuscular junction, particularly the acetylcholine receptor (AchR), are often found in the serum of MG patients. New-onset MG after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has rarely been reported since the introduction of vaccination. Infections and COVID-19 infection have also been reported as possible triggers for a myasthenic crisis. We report a case of new-onset MG after receiving the mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. The patient was a 73-year-old male initially presenting with ocular symptoms and a rapid generalization. We also performed a literature revision of 26 described cases of MG after SARS-CoV-2 immunization. The patients were a majority of males with generalized late-onset MG occurring after the first dose of vaccine, similar to our patient. Only our patient showed a thymoma. Thymic mass and the positivity of AchR antibodies suggest that vaccination might have triggered a subclinical pre-existing MG with symptoms flaring. Clinicians should be aware of possible new-onset MG after COVID-19 vaccination, particularly in at-risk patients. Even though COVID-19 vaccination should be recommended in MG patients, particularly in well-compensated patients. However, more studies need to be performed in the future.

COVID-19 Vaccination and Late-Onset Myasthenia Gravis: A New Case Report and Review of the Literature

Virgilio, Eleonora;Tondo, Giacomo;Montabone, Claudia;Comi, Cristoforo
2023-01-01

Abstract

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare autoimmune disease that is potentially threatening for patient life. Auto-antibodies targeting structures of the neuromuscular junction, particularly the acetylcholine receptor (AchR), are often found in the serum of MG patients. New-onset MG after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has rarely been reported since the introduction of vaccination. Infections and COVID-19 infection have also been reported as possible triggers for a myasthenic crisis. We report a case of new-onset MG after receiving the mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. The patient was a 73-year-old male initially presenting with ocular symptoms and a rapid generalization. We also performed a literature revision of 26 described cases of MG after SARS-CoV-2 immunization. The patients were a majority of males with generalized late-onset MG occurring after the first dose of vaccine, similar to our patient. Only our patient showed a thymoma. Thymic mass and the positivity of AchR antibodies suggest that vaccination might have triggered a subclinical pre-existing MG with symptoms flaring. Clinicians should be aware of possible new-onset MG after COVID-19 vaccination, particularly in at-risk patients. Even though COVID-19 vaccination should be recommended in MG patients, particularly in well-compensated patients. However, more studies need to be performed in the future.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11579/150644
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