Stainless steel implants are suitable candidates for bone replacement due to their cytocompatibility and mechanical resistance, but they suffer from lack of bioactivity and are prone to bacterial infections. Accordingly, to overcome those limitations, in this study we developed by electrophoretic deposition (EPD), an innovative surface coating made of (i) zein, a natural fibroblast-friendly polymer, (ii) bioactive glass, a pro-osteogenic inorganic material and (iii) copper containing bioactive glass, an antibacterial and pro-angiogenic material. FESEM images confirmed that porous, uniform and free of cracks coatings were obtained by EPD; moreover, coatings were resistant to mechanical stress as demonstrated by the tape test, resulting in a 4B classification of adhesion to the substrate. The coatings were cytocompatible as indicated by metabolism evaluation of human fibroblasts, endothelial cells and mature or progenitor osteoblasts cultivated in direct contact with the specimens. They also maintained pro-osteogenic properties towards undifferentiated progenitor cells that expressed osteogenic genes after 15 days of direct cultivation. Copper conferred antibacterial properties as biofilm formation of the joint pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli was significantly reduced in comparison with copper-free coatings (p < 0.05). Moreover, this anti-infective activity resulted as targeted towards bacteria while the cells viability was preserved when cells and bacteria were cultivated in the same environment by a co-culture assay. Finally, copper ability to recruit blood vessels and to inhibit bacterial infection was confirmed in vivo where the growth of S. aureus biofilm was inhibited and the formation of new (<50 μm diameter spread) blood vessels was observed.

Antibacterial, pro-angiogenic and pro-osteointegrative zein-bioactive glass/copper based coatings for implantable stainless steel aimed at bone healing

Cochis A.;Canciani E.;Rimondini L.;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Stainless steel implants are suitable candidates for bone replacement due to their cytocompatibility and mechanical resistance, but they suffer from lack of bioactivity and are prone to bacterial infections. Accordingly, to overcome those limitations, in this study we developed by electrophoretic deposition (EPD), an innovative surface coating made of (i) zein, a natural fibroblast-friendly polymer, (ii) bioactive glass, a pro-osteogenic inorganic material and (iii) copper containing bioactive glass, an antibacterial and pro-angiogenic material. FESEM images confirmed that porous, uniform and free of cracks coatings were obtained by EPD; moreover, coatings were resistant to mechanical stress as demonstrated by the tape test, resulting in a 4B classification of adhesion to the substrate. The coatings were cytocompatible as indicated by metabolism evaluation of human fibroblasts, endothelial cells and mature or progenitor osteoblasts cultivated in direct contact with the specimens. They also maintained pro-osteogenic properties towards undifferentiated progenitor cells that expressed osteogenic genes after 15 days of direct cultivation. Copper conferred antibacterial properties as biofilm formation of the joint pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli was significantly reduced in comparison with copper-free coatings (p < 0.05). Moreover, this anti-infective activity resulted as targeted towards bacteria while the cells viability was preserved when cells and bacteria were cultivated in the same environment by a co-culture assay. Finally, copper ability to recruit blood vessels and to inhibit bacterial infection was confirmed in vivo where the growth of S. aureus biofilm was inhibited and the formation of new (<50 μm diameter spread) blood vessels was observed.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11579/119694
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