Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the most common chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease involving joints. Among several pathogenic mechanisms, the impairment of homeostatic regulators of inflammation seems to be critically important to sustain persistent infiltration and activation of immune and stromal cells within the diseased synovium. Tyrosine kinase receptors Tyro3, Axl, and Mer are members of the TAM family. Upon binding their ligands Growth Arrest-Specific gene 6 (Gas6) and Protein S (ProS1), TAM receptors (TAMs) exert numerous and diverse biologic functions. Activated Axl and Mer, for instance, can negatively regulate the inflammatory cascade and mediate phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, contributing to prevent the development of autoimmunity. Thus, a role for TAMs has been hypothesized in RA. In this review, we will summarise unmet clinical needs in RA, depict the biology of TAMs and TAM ligands, focussing on their ability to regulate the immune system and inflammation cascade, and finally offer an overview of the state-of-the-art literature about the putative role of TAM axis in RA.

New Insights into the Role of Tyro3, Axl, and Mer Receptors in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Bellan M.;Mauro D.;Castello L. M.;Avanzi G. C.;Sainaghi P. P.;Pitzalis C.;Nerviani A.
2020-01-01

Abstract

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the most common chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease involving joints. Among several pathogenic mechanisms, the impairment of homeostatic regulators of inflammation seems to be critically important to sustain persistent infiltration and activation of immune and stromal cells within the diseased synovium. Tyrosine kinase receptors Tyro3, Axl, and Mer are members of the TAM family. Upon binding their ligands Growth Arrest-Specific gene 6 (Gas6) and Protein S (ProS1), TAM receptors (TAMs) exert numerous and diverse biologic functions. Activated Axl and Mer, for instance, can negatively regulate the inflammatory cascade and mediate phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, contributing to prevent the development of autoimmunity. Thus, a role for TAMs has been hypothesized in RA. In this review, we will summarise unmet clinical needs in RA, depict the biology of TAMs and TAM ligands, focussing on their ability to regulate the immune system and inflammation cascade, and finally offer an overview of the state-of-the-art literature about the putative role of TAM axis in RA.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11579/112570
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